Hand In Date: 14th March 2013
Professor Burke is has been a pleasure and an honor working on this project under your direction.
Document Prepared by: .............................Shelley-Ann Hincks Winter 2013 CCJ
This website is an experiment has to how a student can present a research paper in digital format only and displays knowledge of:
Management and filing systems that are needed.
Digital post processing of photographs to enhance the visual aspect of the website.
An understanding of and management of large amounts of information.
Implementation of website layout.
Uploading of images, pdf documents and text.
Meta content (search words entered into website pages).
Registering a domain name for the website. (URL)
Html coding for placement values and holding patterns.
Researching and selection of content material.
The package includes:
One complete website operational and functional.
One digital format of documents required for the website information.
Digital copy of all images used on the website for easy access.
The digital document contains research material some of which has been included into the website, and some has not. Information researched and gathered whether used on the website or not, has been attached to this document for further research should it be needed. Total Hours Worked on this Project:
10th - 13th January ............. 07 hrs
14th - 20th January ............. 13 hrs
21st - 27th January .............. 08 hrs
28th - 03rd February ........... 13 hrs
04th - 10th February ........... 14 hrs
11th - 17th February ........... n/a
18th - 24th February ........... 18 hrs
25th - 03rd March ............... 12 hrs
04th - 10th March .............. 09 hrs
11th - 13th March ............... 12 hrs
TOTAL HOURS approximately 9 WEEKS .. 106 = 11.77 hrs per week.
The website layout is as follows:
Items on the navigation bar are the main topics of the website, indented topics are sub folders of information.
CURRENT CASES OREGON
CURRENT CASES NATIONAL
WHAT CAN YOU DO?
All pictures on this Website are original and copyright belongs to www.humaness.org
Regards the pictures please be advised that although some do not seem appropriate to the subject, this is intentional, as the pictures used are simply to display the quality of work that can be done. Should the need arise to obtain the correct and appropriate pictures, this can and will be done. For example pictures of a gavel where used originally on the Law Page, these were replaced with copyright pictures to ensure integrity of the website and that no copyright was infringed.
Although digital format is far superior to paper format regarding the amount of information that can be presented at one time. I found myself torn between the design/visual aspects of the project and the research/gathering of information about the subject. Although this project was managed by one person (myself), this format might be more suitable to a group project allowing one person to concentrate on the websites visual agenda, and others to research and collection of subject relevant material. Having said that though if I was asked to do it again, I would in a meta heartbeat.
"You never work a day in you life, when you do what you love."
13th March 2013
NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
11th March to 13th Mar 2013 .......................................................... 7 hrs
Proof read again.
Replaced all stock pictures with original.
Filed and labelled all pictures in a manner as to allow someone else to manage the website, all attached to flash drive handed in with project.
Filed all images used on website for easy access.
Worked on 74 page document to hand in on a flash drive.
10th March 2013
NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
03rd Mar to 10th Mar ..................................................................................................................................... 9 hrs
Added to the bottom of each page [Back to Home Page/Top] and linked each one to the relevant links.
Researched legal aspects of Human Trafficking.
Loaded up types of Human Trafficking aspect, and selection of the pages that they related to.
Watched both video suggested by Dr Burke and built a concept around Generation M, loaded all onto sex slavery page.
Post processing of modeling pictures (Females and Males).
Built slides shows to present them.
Loaded all fashion photographs relating to the sexualization of women.
Loaded all fashion photographs relating to the males on labor page. Researched and included Human Trafficking Statistics: attached below: Data Collection: National Crime Victimization Survey (Ncvs)
Frequency: Ongoing from 1973
Latest data available: 2011
NCVS is the Nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization. Each year, data are obtained from a nationally representative sample of about 40,000 households comprising nearly 75,000 persons on the frequency, characteristics and consequences of criminal victimization in the United States. Each household is interviewed twice during the year. The survey enables BJS to estimate the likelihood of victimization by rape, sexual assault, robbery, assault, theft, household burglary, and motor vehicle theft for the population as a whole as well as for segments of the population such as women, the elderly, members of various racial groups, city dwellers, or other groups. The NCVS provides the largest national forum for victims to describe the impact of crime and characteristics of violent offenders. Violent Victimization Committed By Strangers, 1993-2010
Erika Harrell, Ph.D. December 11, 2012 NCJ 239424
Presents findings on the rates and levels of violent victimization committed by offenders who were strangers to the victims, including homicide, rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. The report presents annual trends and compares changes across three 6-year periods in the incidence and type of violence committed by strangers from 1993 through 2010. It describes the characteristics of victims and circumstances of the violent crime. The nonfatal violent victimization estimates were developed from the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which collects information on nonfatal crimes, reported and not reported to the police, against persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. The homicide data are from the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR) for 1993 through 2008.
- In 2010, strangers committed about 38% of nonfatal violent crimes, including rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault.
- In 2005-10, about 10% of violent victimizations committed by strangers involved a firearm, compared to 5% committed by offenders known to the victim.
- From 1993 to 2008, among homicides reported to the FBI for which the victim-offender relationship was known, between 21% and 27% of homicides were committed by strangers and between 73% and 79% were committed by offenders known to the victims.
Florida Coalition Against Human Trafficking/Orlando
They make a statement saying:
Every minute, a human being is bought, sold or forced into slavery.
600,000 to 800,000 people are sold every year around the world.
Of those, 14,500 - 17,500 are trafficked into the United States.
Of those, half are children.
03rd March 2013
HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
25th Feb to 03rd Mar .................................................................................................................................. 12 hrs Finalized all logos on links page. Insured that all links on the website are operational. Researched and incorporated Myths of Human Trafficking and other things you need to know about Human Trafficking: What exactly does trafficking entail?
As I discussed in my article last year, Human Trafficking: The Myths and Realities
, the definition of human trafficking includes recruiting, moving, harboring, or obtaining a person through force, fraud, or coercion. Humans are trafficked for slavery, debt bondage, sexual exploitation, or servitude.
However, this definition needs to be expanded to accommodate the evolving landscape of trafficking methods and networks, as well as the many levels and degrees of trafficking, such as community-based trafficking (where a whole village or community is involved), legacy trafficking (where trafficking has been in the family for generations), and the varying levels of choice and agency in trafficking situations (some of those trafficked are aware of the exploitative situation they will end up in but remain involved because of economics or lack of opportunity). How and where do people get trafficked? Does trafficking always occur because the people are desperate or extremely poor?
No. While some people do feel they have no choice but to sell themselves or their children into slavery, not all trafficking victims are extremely poor or desperate.
Many times the reason for trafficking is twofold—economics play an important role, as do levels of vulnerability. A family that may have enough food and shelter may actually choose to sell themselves or their children into an exploitative labor situation because they can get material goods such as cell phones, a new roof, or even high-end bags, or because they believe that the work will ultimately be profitable. Or, people who don’t have national status or are stateless often enter into exploitative situations under the promise of gaining citizenship into another country.
In other cases, those trafficked are particularly vulnerable. For example, they are seeking work in another country and fall into scams—where “legitimate” jobs turn out to be forced work. Runaways and those who are marginalized as groups and individuals are also vulnerable to this type of trafficking
Read more: http://www.thedailymuse.com/education/what-you-should-know-about-human-trafficking/#ixzz2HqC6tmEV Myth: Human Trafficking and Human Smuggling Are the Same
Though the two terms are often used interchangeably, human trafficking is not human smuggling. Trafficking is the recruiting, transporting, harboring, or receiving of a person through force in order to exploit him or her for prostitution, forced labor, or slavery. Human smuggling, on the other hand, is the transport of an individual from one destination to another, usually with his or her consent—for example, across a border.
It’s an important distinction—and one that must be clear in order for law enforcement and policymakers to properly address each issue
. Myth: Most Traffickers Are What the Movies Show You
A couple of years ago, while sitting at dinner in a trafficking village
, I realized that traffickers are not always powerful gangsters the way mainstream movies like Taken
tend to portray them. Trafficking occurs in a wide range of socioeconomic classes, and the people involved could be anyone—there’s no one type of trafficker. In some villages I visited, the traffickers were politicians and local law enforcement. In other parts of the world, they’re businessmen or restaurateurs.
While organized crime plays a large role in global human trafficking, communities, local governments, and even families are often involved in the process, too. Many times, it’s strictly about economics—those who sell their children are not “evil” or “bad” people, they simply feel that they have no other choice. Myth: Human Trafficking Only Refers to Forced Prostitution
I met a nine-year-old girl from a local Hill Tribe in Thailand who wasn’t going to school. Instead, she was building one—her family was so poor that she was forced into laying bricks for many hours a day. She is free from this life now, but there are thousands of children throughout the world still forced in to this type of labor. Human trafficking does not always equal prostitution—it can include indentured servitude, other exploitation in the workforce (in factories or on farms), and even the organ trade. Myth: Only Women Are Trafficked
Men and young boys are also trafficked, and they often get much less attention then trafficked women do. In part, that’s because it’s very difficult to get young boys out of trafficking, especially sex work, because the activity generates the kind of quick money that cannot be made anywhere else. Men and boys often remain invisible in the trafficking dialogue, or it is assumed they are only trafficked for labor. The short film Underage
by photographer Ohm Phanphiroj
reveals the struggles of young men trapped in the sex industry in Bangkok. Myth: Everyone Trafficked is Kidnapped or Deceived
When women in places like Ukraine respond to ads for entertainment or waitressing jobs, they risk falling in with sham placement agencies that may confiscate their documents and force them into sex work. Or, an uncle in Vietnam may tell his niece she’s going away to work at a restaurant, when in fact, she will be shipped to a brothel.
But other times, trafficking victims clearly understand the situations they’re entering and know they will be exploited. They choose to go anyway because they believe they will ultimately profit
. Some make the choice to be trafficked because of the lack of jobs within their communities
. In other cases, poor families will send their own daughters into sex work or labor for the lucrative one-time pay-off, as well as the potential for more in the future—once a trafficked person pays off her “debt” (the travel and document fees traffickers tell their victims that they owe), she can begin to earn profit.
In fact, many villages use the world trafficking interchangeably with “working.” When some sex workers or factory workers return to the village after “working” in the city, they build large houses and appear “rich” after working, even though their type of work and hardship isn’t discussed. As a result, others in the community strive for similar material gain and continue the trafficking cycle.
But know that when children are involved in sex work or labor, they have not made that choice for themselves. That is always
human trafficking. Myth: Trafficking Only Happens in Other Countries, Not in the United States
While trafficking is often thought of as something that happens across international borders, it also happens in America—every single day. According to Polaris Project
, there are 100,000 to 300,000 children prostituted in America and many more at risk. (You can learn how to identify a trafficking victim at the State Department website
While it’s daunting—and at times depressing—to attempt to understand human trafficking on a global and local level, it’s also empowering. Once you know the realities of human trafficking, you’re better prepared to raise awareness and start taking action.
Read more: http://www.thedailymuse.com/education/human-trafficking-the-myths-and-the-realities/#ixzz2HqD1NdtN Researched and found more Effective Programs as featured below: Program Profile Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) Evidence Rating: Effective - More than one study Program Description Program Goals
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) was designed for use in schools for children ages 10–15 who have had substantial exposure to violence or other traumatic events and who have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the clinical range. The CBITS program has three main goals: 1) to reduce symptoms related to trauma, 2) to build resilience, and 3) to increase peer and parent support. The program was developed to reduce symptoms of distress and build skills to improve children’s abilities to handle stress and trauma in the future. Program Theory
The theoretical underpinnings are based on cognitive–behavioral theory (CBT) regarding anxiety and trauma. In short, traumatic life events lead to impairment (including psychological reactions, behavioral problems, and functional impairment), which in turn leads to long-term adjustment problems such as PTSD, depression, violent behavior, and substance abuse. These adverse outcomes, consequently, increase risk for exposure to more traumatic events and life stressors, compounding vulnerability in the future and creating a cycle. Program Components
The program addresses risk factors for developing chronic disturbances following trauma, including poor coping skills, cognitive factors, and low levels of social support. Symptom reduction is accomplished by CBT practices—reducing maladaptive thinking that can drive depressive and anxious moods, reducing anxiety directly through relaxation training, reducing anxiety through behavior therapy (exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli and habituation of anxiety), and processing the traumatic experience to reduce both anxiety and traumatic grief.
The CBITS intervention incorporates cognitive–behavioral therapy skills in a group format (five to eight students per group) to address symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression related to exposure to violence. Symptom reduction is accomplished through cognitive techniques and trauma-focused work in imagination, writing, and narratives. In each session, a new set of skills is taught to the child, using didactic presentation, age-appropriate examples, and games. The child then uses the skills to address his or her problems through homework assignments collaboratively developed by the child and CBITS clinician.
The CBITS program is formatted to take place in 10 child group sessions, each lasting one class period. The sessions adhere to the curriculum below:
· Session 1
: Introduction of group members, confidentiality, and group procedures. Explanation of treatment
using stories. Discussion of reasons for participation (kinds of stress or trauma).
· Session 2
: Education about common reactions to stress or trauma. Relaxation training to combat anxiety.
· Session 3
: Thoughts and feelings (introduction to cognitive therapy). Fear Thermometer. Linkage between
thoughts and feelings. Combating negative thoughts.
· Session 4
: Combating negative thoughts.
· Session 5
: Avoidance and coping (introduction to real-life exposure). Construction of fear hierarchy.
Alternative coping strategies.
· Session 6
: Exposure to stress or trauma memory through imagination/drawing/writing.
· Session 7
: Exposure to stress or trauma memory through imagination/drawing/writing.
· Session 8
: Introduction to social problem solving.
· Session 9
: Practice with social problem solving and hot seat.
· Session 10
: Relapse prevention and graduation ceremony.
Between Session 2 and Session 6, there are also individual sessions that focus on imaginal exposure to a traumatic event. The imaginal exposure can then be brought out through drawing and writing exercises in group sessions. Additional Information
The Mental Health for Immigrants Program (MHIP) is an eight-session CBT group based on CBITS. MHIP uses the same curriculum and session content as CBITS, but also includes four 2-hour optional multifamily group sessions designed to complement the child's treatment. The parent component was included because psychoeducation for parents about their child’s PTSD has been recommended. Parents and clinicians discuss the effects of trauma on children and the types of techniques that the children will be learning. The sessions also include parenting techniques. Evaluation Outcomes Study 1 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms
Stein and colleagues (2003) found that at the 3-month assessment the group receiving Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) had significantly lower scores of self-reported PTSD symptoms than the comparison group (8.9 versus 15.5). The results indicated that 86 percent of students who received the CBITS intervention reported lower scores of PTSD symptoms at 3 months than the scores expected if they had not undergone the intervention. At 6 months, after the waitlist delayed-intervention comparison group completed the CBITS program, there was no significant difference between the groups. Depressive Symptoms
At the 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported depressive symptoms were lower for the CBTIS group than for the waitlist group. Again, the results showed 67 percent of the early intervention group reported lower scores of depressive symptoms than the scores expected if they had not undergone the intervention. At 6 months, after the waitlist comparison group completed the intervention, there was no longer any significant difference between the groups. Psychosocial Dysfunction
Parents of students in the CBITS group reported significantly less psychosocial dysfunction of their children at 3 months, compared with the reports from parents of students in the comparison group (12.5 versus 16.5, respectively). However, at 6 months, the parents of students in the early intervention and waitlist delayed-intervention groups had similar ratings of child psychosocial dysfunction. School Conduct
No significant differences between the groups were found for teacher-reported classroom problems of acting out. Study 2 Depressive Symptoms
Kataoka and colleagues (2003) found that at 3 months the average score for depressive symptoms (Child Depression Inventory [CDI] scores) of the Mental Health for Immigrants Program (MHIP) intervention group had significantly decreased from 16.3 to 13.5. There was no significant change in depressive symptoms for the waitlist group.
Multivariate analysis showed that the MHIP intervention group had lower follow-up CDI scores, and therefore lower depressive symptoms, compared to the waitlist group, when controlling for baseline CDI score, age, gender, country of origin, parent education level, and parent marital status. PTSD Symptoms
The Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) mean scores for PTSD symptoms also significantly decreased from 18.8 to 13 in the intervention group, but did not significantly decrease for the waitlist group.
Multivariate analysis found that the intervention group had a lower follow-up CPSS score, and therefore lower PTSD symptoms, than the waitlist group, when controlling for baseline CPSS score, age, gender, baseline total violence score, country of origin, and parental employment status. Evaluation Methodology Study 1
Hein and colleagues (2003) conducted a randomized controlled study during the 2001–02 academic year to assess the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) at two large middle schools in a primarily Latino community in East Los Angeles, Calif. Sixth-grade students were considered eligible to participate in the study if they had substantial exposure to violence, clinical levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, PTSD symptoms related to exposure to violence that they were willing to discuss in a group (as determined by their school-based mental health clinician), and if they did not appear too disruptive to participate in a group therapy intervention session (in the opinion of their school-based mental health clinician).
Eligible students were randomly assigned to a 10-session standardized cognitive–behavioral therapy. Students were randomly assigned to either the early-intervention group (n= 61) or to a waitlist delayed-intervention comparison group (n= 65). School officials preferred to provide an intervention program to all students, so students assigned to the waitlist delayed-intervention comparison group received CBITS 3 months after the early intervention group participated in the program. Therefore, at the 3-month follow-up, the early-intervention group was compared to the waitlist delayed-intervention comparison group before they participated in the intervention. However, at the 6-month follow-up, all study participants had received the CBITS program. Data from students was collected at baseline and at 3 months. Data was also collected at 6 months after the waitlist delayed-intervention comparison group had received 3 months of intervention.
The early intervention group had an average age of 11 years and was 33 percent female. The group also had a Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) average score of 24.5 (indicating moderate to severe PTSD symptom levels). The waitlist delayed-intervention group had an average age of 10.9 years, was 38 percent female, and had an average CPSS score of 23.5. There were no significant differences between the two groups on baseline characteristics.
Multiple measures were used to assess symptoms of PTSD, symptoms of depression, child psychological dysfunction, and classroom behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the CPSS, a 17-item child self-report measure where students rate how often they are bothered by each symptom in the past month on a scale from 0 (not at all) to 3 (almost always). Depression was measured using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), a 26-item scale that assesses children’s cognitive, affective, and behavioral symptoms of depression. Child psychosocial dysfunction was measured using the 35-item Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC), in which a student's parents rate the frequency of the student’s emotional and behavioral problem on a scale from 0 (never) to 2 (often). Classroom behavior was measured by having the student’s teacher complete the 6-item Teacher–Child Rating Scale for shyness/anxiousness, learning problems, and an acting out behavior problem subscales. The teachers rate how much of a problem each behavior is on a scale from 1 (not a problem) to 5 (very serious problem).
Linear regression to estimate the mean difference in outcome scores between the two intervention groups at 3 months and 6 months was used to assess the effectiveness of CBITS. Effect sizes were calculated as the ratio of the estimated treatment effect (early intervention score minus delayed intervention score at follow-up, after controlling for baseline scores) to the pooled standard deviation at baseline. Study 2
Kataoka and colleagues (2003) evaluated CBITS using a quasi-experimental design with recent immigrant Latino children to test the effectiveness of the Mental Health for Immigrants Program (MHIP) child intervention. Nine public schools in Los Angeles, Calif., agreed to participate in the study. A total of 970 students were eligible for screening (i.e., were in grades 3–8, were foreign born, had immigrated to the United States within the past 3 years, and spoke Spanish). Ninety-one percent of the sample (879 students) completed a screening questionnaire regarding exposure to violence and symptoms of trauma. Thirty-one percent of the screened students (276 children) reported clinical PTSD or depression symptoms (or both) and were recruited for the study. Of these, 83 percent (229 students) were given parental permission to participate. A total of 198 Spanish-speaking immigrant students in grades 3–8 were included in the final sample because they were available for the 3-month follow-up.
Initially, 67 students were randomly assigned to receive the MHIP intervention immediately, and 46 students were assigned to a waitlist comparison group. Waitlist students were given referrals to community mental health agencies, though most subjects did not follow up on these referrals. Later in the school year, an additional 85 eligible students were assigned to the intervention (which introduced a nonrandomized group into the early intervention treatment group), resulting in a total of 152 children participating in the early MHIP intervention and the original 46 in the waitlist control group. The randomized and nonrandomized children did not differ on baseline violence exposure, symptom levels, or socioeconomic characteristics, except for a significant difference in parental education (which was higher in the nonrandomized group). Data on the 152 students receiving CBITS and the 46 waitlist group students was used in the analyses.
The early intervention group was 51 percent female with an average age of 11.5 years. The waitlist group was 47 percent female with an average age of 11.2 years. All study participants were Latino, with country of origin varying from Mexico (57 percent), El Salvador (18 percent), Guatemala (11 percent), and other countries (13 percent). There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups, except for parental education; the parents of the students in the waitlist group had significantly fewer years of education.
During the 3-month follow-up period, exposure to community violence was measured with a modified version of the Life Events Scale, a 34-item scale that asks about the frequency of several types of violence directed at the study participant or directly witnessed by them (such as threats, slapping/hitting/punching, knife attacks, and shootings) in multiple locations over the past year and throughout the participant's lifetime. Symptoms of PTSD reported in the past month were measured with the CPSS. The CDI was used to measure depressive symptoms reported in the past two weeks. All measures were translated from English to Spanish by the school district’s translation unit.
Comparison of continued data between baseline and follow-up was completed using a two-tailed Student t
-test. Categorical data was compared using the chi-square statistic. In addition, linear regression was used to examine bivariate and multivariate relationships of outcome variables. To obtain robust estimates of the standard errors, adjustments for clustering were also made to account for the different assignment strategies. This could take into account potential school effects as well as any systematic differences in school demographics. Cost
Start-up costs for Cognitive–Behavioral Intervention for Trauma (CBITS) include training as well as ongoing supervision or consultation by a CBITS expert. Training for 12–15 participants costs approximately $4,000, plus trainer travel expenses. Continuing education credits often can be arranged. Trainers typically conduct pretraining consultation on implementation issues and provide extensive implementation and implementation support materials via the CBITS Web site. The cost of implementation can be calculated based on the salary of a full-time, school-based, mental health professional who is devoted to delivering CBITS. One professional can screen students in the general school population and select students with elevated symptoms, delivering up to 30 CBITS groups per academic year (6–8 students per group), for a total of about 210 students. Given an estimated annual cost of a full-time social worker at $90,000, this would result in a cost of $430 per participant. The CBITS manual costs approximately $45 and is available from Sopris West/Cambium Publishing. The manual contains reproducible worksheets for use in the groups. Implementation Information Required materials:
The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) manual by Lisa H. Jaycox (2003) is available to the public (Cognitive–Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools
. Longmont, Colo.: Sopris West Educational Services). The manual contains reproducible worksheets for use in the groups, and details step-by-step plans and scripts for implementing the program. Training requirements/provider certification:
Trainings are offered regularly through the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and can also be arranged onsite. A free, online training course is available on the CBITS Web site, along with extensive implementation support. Consultation on implementation and evaluation, ongoing supervision of trainees, and monitoring adherence is also available. Psychiatric school clinicians or social workers should be at the master’s level and may require supervision in the beginning. Other Information
Cognitive–Behavioral Interventions for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) is being disseminated nationally for use with various ethnic and racial groups, and with high school students. Adaptations are available to accommodate Spanish speakers, low-literacy students, and those in the foster care system. Evidence-Base (Studies Reviewed)
These sources were used in the development of the program profile: Study 1
Stein, Bradley D., Lisa H. Jaycox, Sheryl H. Kataoka, Marleen Wong, Wenli Tu, Marc N. Elliot, and Arlene Fink. 2003. “A Mental Health Intervention for Schoolchildren Exposed to Violence.” Journal of the American Medical Association
290(5):603–11. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/290/5/603.full.pdf+html Study 2
Kataoka, Sheryl H., Bradley D. Stein, Lisa H. Jaycox, Marleen Wong, Pia Escudero, Wenli Tu, Catalina Zaragoza, and Arlene Fink. 2003. “A School-Based Mental Health Program for Traumatized Latino Immigrant Children.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
42(3):311–18. Additional References
These sources were used in the development of the program profile:
Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS). 2011. “Home.” Accessed May 18, 2011. hhtp://cbitsprogram.org/
Cohen, Judith A., Lisa H. Jaycox, Douglas W. Walker, Anthony P. Mannarino, Audra K. Langley, and Jennifer L. DuClos. 2009. “Treating Traumatized Children After Hurricane Katrina: Project Fleur-de-Lis.” Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Jaycox, Lisa H. 2003. Cognitive–Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools. Longmont, Colo.: Sopris West Educational Services.
Jaycox, Lisa H., Judy A. Cohen, Anthony P. Mannarino, Douglas W. Walker, Audra K. Langley, Kate L. Gegenheimer, Molly Scott, and Matthias Schonlau. Forthcoming. 2010. “Children’s Mental Health Care Following Hurricane Katrina: A Field Trial of Trauma-Focused Psychotherapies.” Journal of Traumatic Stress
Morsette, Aaron, Gyda Swaney, Darrell Stolle, David Schuldberg, Richard van den Pol, Melissa Young. 2009. “Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS): School-Based Treatment on a Rural American Indian Reservation.” Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Stein, Bradley D., Lisa H. Jaycox, Sheryl H. Kataoka, Marleen Wong, Wenli Tu, Marc N. Elliot, and Arlene Fink. 2003. “A Mental Health Intervention for Schoolchildren Exposed to Violence.” Journal of the American Medical Association
Stein, Bradley D., Marc N. Elliott, Wenli Tu, Linda H. Jaycox, Sheryl H. Kataoka, Marleen Wong, and Arlene Fink. 2003. “School-Based Intervention for Children Exposed to Violence: Reply.” Journal of the American Medical Association
24th February 2013
HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
18th Feb to 24th Feb ................................................................................................................................... 18 hrs
Researched current cases of Human Trafficking in Oregon and Nationally.
Loaded them up on Current Cases Oregon page and Current Cases National page. Researched laws attached to Human Trafficking, attached below: Bonded labor
, or debt bondage, is probably the least known form of labor trafficking today, and yet it is the most widely used method of enslaving people. Victims become bonded laborers when their labor is demanded as a means of repayment for a loan or service in which its terms and conditions have not been defined or in which the value of the victims’ services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt. The value of their work is greater than the original sum of money "borrowed." Forced labor
is a situation in which victims are forced to work against their own will, under the threat of violence or some other form of punishment, their freedom is restricted and a degree of ownership is exerted. Men are at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work, which globally generates $31bn according to the International Labor Organization
. Forms of forced labor can include domestic servitude; agricultural labor; sweatshop factory labor; janitorial, food service and other service industry labor; and begging. Sex trafficking
victims are generally found in dire circumstances and easily targeted by traffickers. Individuals, circumstances, and situations vulnerable to traffickers include homeless individuals, runaway teens, displaced homemakers, refugees, job seekers, tourists, kidnap victims and drug addicts. While it may seem like trafficked people are the most vulnerable and powerless minorities in a region, victims are consistently exploited from any ethnic and social background.
Fake job offers are a common way to obtain women in Asia, the Former Soviet Block Nations and Latin America.[citation needed
Traffickers, also known as pimps
or madams, exploit vulnerabilities
and lack of opportunities, while offering promises of marriage, employment, education, and/or an overall better life. However, in the end, traffickers force the victims to become prostitutes or work in the sex industry
 Various work in the sex industry includes prostitution, dancing in strip clubs
, performing in pornographic films
, and other forms of involuntary servitude
Human trafficking does not require travel or transport from one location to another, but one form of sex trafficking involves international agents and brokers who arrange travel and job placements for women from one country. Women are lured to accompany traffickers based on promises of lucrative opportunities unachievable in their native country. However, once they reach their destination, the women discover that they have been deceived and learn the true nature of the work that they will be expected to do. Most have been told false information regarding the financial arrangements and conditions of their employment and find themselves in coercive or abusive situations from which escape is both difficult and dangerous. According to a 2009 U.S. Department of Justice report, there were 1,229 suspected human trafficking incidents in the United States from January 2007- September 2008. Of these, 83 percent were sex trafficking cases, though only 9% of all cases could be confirmed as examples of human trafficking. Child labour
is a form of work that is likely to be hazardous to the physical, mental, spiritual, moral, or social development of children and can interfere with their education. The International Labor Organization estimates worldwide that there are 246 million exploited children aged between 5 and 17 involved in debt bondage
, forced recruitment for armed conflict
, the illegal drug trade
, the illegal arms trade, and other illicit activities around the world. Trafficking in children Main article: Trafficking of children
Trafficking of children is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation.
Trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children
can take many forms and include forcing a child into prostitution
 or other forms of sexual activity or child pornography
. Child exploitation can also include forced labour
or services, slavery
or practices similar to slavery, servitude, the removal of organs, illicit international adoption
, trafficking for early marriage, recruitment as child soldiers
, for use in begging
or as athletes (such as child camel jockeys
or football players), or for recruitment for cults.
It was reported in 2010 that Thailand
were considered to have the worst child sex trafficking records.
Trafficking in children often involves exploitation of the parents' extreme poverty. Parents may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income, or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. They may sell their children for labor, sex trafficking, or illegal adoptions.
The adoption process, legal and illegal, when abused can sometimes result in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the West and the developing world. In David M. Smolin
’s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States, he presents the systemic vulnerabilities in the inter-country adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable.
Human trafficking and sexual exploitation
A world map showing the legislative situation in different countries to prevent female trafficking as of 2009 according to Woman Stats Project
There is no universally accepted definition of trafficking for sexual exploitation. The term encompasses the organized movement of people, usually women, between countries and within countries for sex work with the use of physical coercion, deception and bondage through forced debt. However, the issue becomes contentious when the element of coercion is removed from the definition to incorporate facilitating the willing involvement in prostitution. For example, in the United Kingdom, The Sexual Offenses Act, 2003 incorporated trafficking for sexual exploitation but did not require those committing the offence to use coercion, deception or force, so that it also includes any person who enters the UK to carry out sex work with consent as having been trafficked. In addition, any minor involved in a commercial sex act in the United States while under the age of 18 qualifies as a trafficking victim, even if no movement is involved, under the definition of Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons, in the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000.
A 2011 paper published in Human Rights Review
, “Sex Trafficking: Trends, Challenges and Limitations of International Law,” notes that, since 2000, the number of sex-trafficking victims has risen while costs associated with trafficking have declined: “Coupled with the fact that trafficked sex slaves are the single most profitable type of slave, costing on average $1,895 each but generating $29,210 annually, leads to stark predictions about the likely growth in commercial sex slavery in the future.” In 2008, 12.3 million individuals were classified as “forced laborers, bonded laborers or sex-trafficking victims,” the study states. Approximately 1.39 million of these individuals worked as commercial sex slaves, with women and girls comprising 98%, or 1.36 million, of this population.
The international Save the Children
organization stated: "... The issue, however, gets mired in controversy and confusion when prostitution too is considered as a violation of the basic human rights of both adult women and minors, and equal to sexual exploitation per se. ... trafficking and prostitution become conflated with each other. .... On account of the historical conflation of trafficking and prostitution both legally and in popular understanding, an overwhelming degree of effort and interventions of anti-trafficking groups are concentrated on trafficking into prostitution."
Sexual trafficking includes coercing a migrant into a sexual act as a condition of allowing or arranging the migration. Sexual trafficking uses physical coercion, deception and bondage incurred through forced debt. Trafficked women and children, for instance, are often promised work in the domestic or service industry, but instead are usually taken to brothels
where their passports and other identification papers are confiscated. They may be beaten or locked up and promised their freedom only after earning – through prostitution – their purchase price, as well as their travel and visa costs.
The main motive of a woman (in some cases, an underage girl) to accept an offer from a trafficker is better financial opportunities for herself or her family. In many cases, traffickers initially offer ‘legitimate’ work or the promise of an opportunity to study. The main types of work offered are in the catering and hotel industry, in bars and clubs, modeling contracts, or au pair work. Traffickers sometimes use offers of marriage, threats, intimidation and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. In the majority of cases, the women end up in prostitution. Also some (migrating) prostitutes become victims of human trafficking. Some women know they will be working as prostitutes, but they have an inaccurate view of the circumstances and the conditions of the work in their country of destination.
Trafficking victims are also exposed to different psychological problems. They suffer social alienation
in the host and home countries. Stigmatization
, social exclusion
, and intolerance
make reintegration into local communities difficult. The governments offer little assistance and social services to trafficked victims upon their return. As the victims are also pushed into drug trafficking
, many of them face criminal sanctions. The Yogyakarta Principles
, document on international human rights law
on sexual orientation
and gender identity
also affirm that "States shall (c) establish legal, educational and social measures, service and programs to address factors that increase vulnerability to trafficking, sale and all forms of exploitation, including but not limited to sexual exploitation
, on the grounds of actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity, including such factors as social exclusion, discrimination, rejection by families or cultural communities, lack of financial independence, homelessness
, discriminatory social attitudes leading to low self-esteem
, and lack of protection from discrimination in access to housing accommodation, employment and social services. Profile and modus operandi of traffickers
Traffickers of young girls into prostitution in India are often women who have been trafficked themselves. As adults they use personal relationships and trust in their villages of origin to recruit additional girls.
National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline
The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) is a national, toll-free hotline, available to answer calls from anywhere in the United States, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, every day of the year. It is operated by Polaris Project
, a non-government organization working to combat human trafficking. Callers can report tips and receive information on human trafficking by calling the hotline at 1.888.3737.888.
The hotline provides data on where cases of suspected human trafficking are occurring within the United States. A national map of calls is updated daily to reflect the sources of calls to the hotline.
Findings of the legislative framework in place in different countries to prevent/reduce human trafficking. The findings are from the 2010 Department of State
Trafficking in Persons Report
- TIER 1: Countries whose governments fully comply with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s (TVPA) minimum standards.
- TIER 2: Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.
- TIER 2 WATCH LIST: Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards AND:
a) The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing;
b) There is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year; or
c) The determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional future steps over the next year.
- TIER 3: Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so.
Intergovernmental organizations and public international law United Nations Main article: United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
In 2000 the United Nations adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
, also called the Palermo Convention, and two Palermo protocols
All of these instruments contain elements of the current international law on trafficking in humans.
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime
(UNODC) has assisted many non-governmental organizations
in their fight against human trafficking. The 2006 armed conflict in Lebanon
, which saw 300,000 domestic workers from Sri Lanka
and the Philippines
jobless and targets of traffickers, led to an emergency information campaign with NGO Caritas Migrant to raise human-trafficking awareness. Additionally, an April 2006 report, Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns, helped to identify 127 countries of origin, 98 transit countries and 137 destination countries for human trafficking. To date, it is the second most frequently downloaded UNODC report. Continuing into 2007, UNODC supported initiatives like the Community Vigilance project along the border between India
, as well as provided subsidy for NGO trafficking prevention campaigns in Bosnia
, and Herzegovina
. Public service announcements have also proved useful for organizations combating human trafficking. In addition to many other endeavors, UNODC works to broadcast these announcements on local television and radio stations across the world. By providing regular access to information regarding human-trafficking, individuals are educated how to protect themselves and their families from being exploited.
The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
(UN.GIFT) was conceived to promote the global fight on human trafficking, on the basis of international agreements reached at the UN. UN.GIFT was launched in March 2007 by UNODC with a grant made on behalf of the United Arab Emirates. It is managed in cooperation with the International Labour Organization (ILO); the International Organization for Migration (IOM); the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF); the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR); and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
Within UN.GIFT, UNODC launched a research exercise to gather primary data on national responses to trafficking in persons worldwide. This exercise resulted in the publication of the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons in February 2009. The report gathers official information for 155 countries and territories in the areas of legal and institutional framework, criminal justice response and victim assistance services. UN.GIFT works with all stakeholders — governments, business, academia, civil society and the media — to support each other's work, create new partnerships, and develop effective tools to fight human trafficking.
The Global Initiative is based on a simple principle: human trafficking is a crime of such magnitude and atrocity that it cannot be dealt with successfully by any government alone. This global problem requires a global, multi-stakeholder strategy that builds on national efforts throughout the world.
To pave the way for this strategy, stakeholders must coordinate efforts already underway, increase knowledge and awareness, provide technical assistance, promote effective rights-based responses, build capacity of state and non-state stakeholders, foster partnerships for joint action, and above all, ensure that everybody takes responsibility for this fight.
By encouraging and facilitating cooperation and coordination, UN.GIFT aims to create synergies among the anti-trafficking activities of UN agencies, international organizations and other stakeholders to develop the most efficient and cost-effective tools and good practices.
UN.GIFT aims to mobilize state and non-state actors to eradicate human trafficking by reducing both the vulnerability of potential victims and the demand for exploitation in all its forms, ensuring adequate protection and support to those who fall victim, and supporting the efficient prosecution of the criminals involved, while respecting the fundamental human rights of all persons.
In carrying out its mission, UN.GIFT will increase the knowledge and awareness on human trafficking, promote effective rights-based responses, build capacity of state and non-state actors, and foster partnerships for joint action against human trafficking.
For more information view the UN.GIFT Progress Report 2009.
Further UNODC efforts to motivate action launched the Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking
on March 6, 2009, which Mexico launched its own national version of in April 2010. The campaign encourages people to show solidarity with human trafficking victims by wearing the blue heart, similar to how wearing the red ribbon promotes transnational HIV
awareness. On November 4, 2010, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
launched the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to provide humanitarian
, legal and financial aid to victims of human trafficking with the aim of increasing the number of those rescued and supported, and broadening the extent of assistance they receive.
In December 2012, UNODC published the new edition of the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 has revealed that 27 per cent of all victims of human trafficking officially detected globally between 2007 and 2010 are children, up 7 per cent from the period 2003 to 2006. Girl victims make up two thirds of all trafficked children. Girls constitute 15 to 20 per cent of the total number of all detected victims, including adults, whereas boys comprise about 10 per cent, says the Report, which is based on official data supplied by 132 countries. The Global Report recorded victims of 136 different nationalities detected in 118 countries between 2007 and 2010, during which period, 460 different flows were identified. Around half of all trafficking took place within the same region with 27 per cent occurring within national borders. One exception is the Middle East, where most detected victims are East and South Asians. Trafficking victims from East Asia have been detected in more than 60 countries, making them the most geographically dispersed group around the world. There are significant regional differences in the detected forms of exploitation. Countries in Africa and in Asia generally intercept more cases of trafficking for forced labour, while sexual exploitation is somewhat more frequently found in Europe and in the Americas. Additionally, trafficking for organ removal was detected in 16 countries around the world.The Report raises concerns about low conviction rates - 16 per cent of reporting countries did not record a single conviction for trafficking in persons between 2007 and 2010. On a positive note, 154 countries have ratified the United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol, of which UNODC is the guardian. Significant progress has been made in terms of legislation, as 83 per cent of countries now have a law that criminalizes trafficking in persons in accordance with the Protocol. Council of Europe
On 3 May 2005, the Committee of Ministers adopted the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
(CETS No. 197). The Convention was opened for signature in Warsaw
on 16 May 2005 on the occasion of the 3rd Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe. On 24 October 2007, the Convention received its tenth ratification thereby triggering the process whereby it entered into force on 1 February 2008. The Convention now counts 34 ratifications by Council of Europe member states, with an additional nine member states having signed but not yet ratified.
While other international instruments already exist in this field, the Council of Europe Convention, the first European treaty in this field, is a comprehensive treaty focussing mainly on the protection of victims of trafficking and the safeguard of their rights. It also aims to prevent trafficking and to prosecute traffickers. In addition, the Convention provides for the setting up of an effective and independent monitoring mechanism capable of controlling the implementation of the obligations contained in the Convention.
The Convention is not restricted to Council of Europe members states; non-members states and the European Union also have the possibility of becoming Party to the Convention.
The Convention established a Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) which monitors the implementation of the Convention through country reports. As of 1 March 2012, GRETA has published nine country reports.
Complementary protection is ensured through the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
, 25 October 2007).
In addition, the European Court of Human Rights
of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg
has passed judgments concerning trafficking in human beings which violated obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights
: Siliadin v. France, judgment of 26 July 2005, and Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia, judgment of 7 January 2010. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Main article: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In 2003 the OSCE established an anti-trafficking mechanism aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating States to tackle it effectively.
The OSCE actions against human trafficking are coordinated by the Office of the Special Representative for Combating the Traffic of Human Beings
. In January 2010, Maria Grazia Giammarinaro became the OSCE Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings. Dr. Giammarinaro (Italy) has been a judge at the Criminal Court of Rome since 1991. She served from 2006 until 2009 in the European Commission's Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security in Brussels, where she was responsible for work to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation of children, as well as for penal aspects of illegal immigration within the unit dealing with the fight against organized crime. During this time, she co-ordinated the Group of Experts on Trafficking in Human Beings of the European Commission. From 2001 to 2006 she was a judge for preliminary investigation in the Criminal Court of Rome. Prior to that, from 1996 she was Head of the Legislative Office and Adviser to the Minister for Equal Opportunities. From 2006 to December 2009 the office was headed by Eva Biaudet
, a former Member of Parliament and Minister of Health and Social Services in her native Finland.
The activities of the Office of the Special Representative range from training law enforcement agencies to tackle human trafficking to promoting policies aimed at rooting out corruption and organised crime. The Special Representative also visits countries and can, on their request, support the formation and implementation of their anti-trafficking policies. In other cases the Special Representative provides advice regarding implementation of the decisions on human trafficking, and assists governments, ministers and officials to achieve their stated goals of tackling human trafficking.
Other government actions
Actions taken to combat human trafficking vary from government to government. Some have introduced legislation specifically aimed at making human trafficking illegal. Governments can also develop systems of co-operation between different nations' law enforcement agencies and with non-government organizations
(NGOs). Many countries have come under criticism for inaction, or ineffective action. Criticisms include the failure of governments to properly identify and protect trafficking victims, immigration policies which potentially re-victimize
trafficking victims, or insufficient action in helping prevent vulnerable people from becoming trafficking victims.
A particular criticism has been the reluctance of some countries to tackle trafficking for purposes other than sex.
Another action governments can take is raising awareness of this issue. This can take three forms. First, in raising awareness amongst potential victims, particularly in countries where human traffickers are active. Second, raising awareness amongst police, social welfare workers and immigration officers to equip them to deal appropriately with the problem. And finally, in countries where prostitution is legal or semi-legal, raising awareness amongst the clients of prostitution to watch for signs of human trafficking victims.
Raising awareness can take on different forms. One method is through the use of awareness films or through posters.
During the time racism was a major issue in the U.S., Congress feared White slavery. The result of this fear was the White Slave Traffic Act of 1910, which criminalized interracial marriage and banned single women from crossing state borders for morally wrong acts. In 1914, of the women arrested for crossing state borders under this act, 70% were charged with voluntary prostitution. Once the idea of a sex slave shifted from a White woman to an enslaved woman from countries in poverty, the U.S. began passing immigration acts to curtail aliens from entering the country among other reasons. Several acts such as the Temporary Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 were passed to prevent emigrants from Europe and Asia from entering the United States. Following the banning of immigrants during the 1920s, human trafficking was not seen as a major issue until the 1990s. However, during 1949, the first international statute that dealt with sex slavery was the 1949 UN Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and Exploitation of Prostitution of Others. This convention followed the abolitionist idea of sex trafficking as incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person. Serving as a model for future legislation, the 1949 UN Convention was not ratified by every country.
Before America’s recent efforts to take on a major role in the anti-trafficking movement, the U.N. was the main regulator in solving the global issue of human trafficking. Under the Bush Administration, fighting sex slavery worldwide and domestically became a priority with an average of $100 million spent per year, which substantially outnumbers the amount spent by other countries. Before President Bush took office, Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA). The TVPA strengthened services to victims of violence, law enforcements ability to reduce violence against women and children, and education against human trafficking. Also specified in the TVPA was a mandate to collect funds for the treatment of sex trafficking victims that provided shelter, food, education, and financial grants. Internationally, the TVPA set standards that governments of other countries must follow in order to receive aid from the U.S. to fight human trafficking. Once George W. Bush took office in 2000, restricting sex trafficking became one of his primary humanitarian efforts. Attorney General under President Bush, John Ashcroft, heavily enforced the TVPA. Today the State Department publishes the annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which examines the progress that the U.S. and other countries have made in destroying human trafficking businesses, arresting the kingpins, and rescuing the victims.
The PROTECT Act of 2003
, passed in April 2003, was a part of the government effort to further increase the punishment of child exploitation. The 18 U.S.C. § 1591, or the "Commercial Sex Act" makes it illegal to recruit, entice, obtain, provide, move or harbor a person or to benefit from such activities knowing that the person will be caused to engage in commercial sex acts where the person is under 18 or where force, fraud or coercion exists.
The Anti-trafficking Policy Index
The '3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index' measures the effectiveness of government policies to fight human trafficking based on an evaluation of policy requirements prescribed by the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000).
The policy level is evaluated using a five-point scale, where a score of five indicates the best policy practice, while score 1 is the worst. This scale is used to analyze the main three anti-trafficking policy areas: (i) prosecuting (criminalizing) traffickers, (ii) protecting victims, and (iii) preventing the crime of human trafficking. Each sub-index of prosecution, protection and prevention is aggregated to the overall index with an unweighted sum, with the overall index ranging from a score of 3 (worst) to 15 (best). It is available for up to 177 countries over the 2000-2009 period (on an annual basis).
The outcome of the Index shows that anti-trafficking policy has overall improved over the 2000-2009 period. Improvement is most prevalent in the prosecution and prevention areas worldwide. An exception is protection policy, which shows a modest deterioration in recent years.
In 2009 (the most recent year of the evaluation), seven countries demonstrate the highest possible performance in policies for all three dimensions (overall score 15). These countries are Germany, Australia, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Sweden and the US. The second best performing group (overall score 14) consists of France, Norway, South Korea, Croatia, Canada, Austria, Slovenia and Nigeria. The worst performing country in 2009 was North Korea, receiving the lowest score in all dimensions (overall score 3), followed by Somalia. For more information view the Human Trafficking Research and Measurement website.
International legislation History of international legislation
International pressure to address trafficking in women and children became a growing part of the social Reform movement
in the United States and Europe during the late 19th century. International legislation against the trafficking of women and children began with the ratification of an international convention in 1901, followed by ratification of a second convention in 1904. These conventions were ratified by 34 countries. The first formal international research into the scope of the problem was funded by American philanthropist John D. Rockefeller
, through the American Bureau of Social Hygiene
. In 1923, a committee from the bureau was tasked with investigating trafficking in 28 countries, interviewing approximately 5,000 informants and analyzing information over two years before issuing its final report. This was the first formal report on trafficking in women and children to be issued by an official body.
The League of Nations
, formed in 1919, took over as the international coordinator of legislation intended to end the trafficking of women and children. An international Conference on White Slave Traffic was held in 1921, attended by the 34 countries that ratified the 1901 and 1904 conventions. Another convention against trafficking was ratified by League members in 1922, and like the 1904 international convention, this one required ratifying countries to submit annual reports on their progress in tackling the problem. Compliance with this requirement was not complete, although it gradually improved: in 1924, approximately 34% of the member countries submitted reports as required, which rose to 46% in 1929, 52% in 1933, and 61% in 1934.
Current international laws
- Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages, entered into force in 1964
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; and
- Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
- ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
- ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)
- ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)
Both the human trafficking discourse and the actions undertaken by the anti-human traffickers have been criticized by some scholars. and journalists The criticism touches upon three main themes: 1) statistics and data on human trafficking; 2) the concept itself; 3) the anti-trafficking measures. Problems with statistics and data
Numerous NGOs and governmental agencies produce estimates and specific statistics on the numbers of potential and actual victims of trafficking. According to the critics, these figures rarely have identifiable sources or transparent methodologies behind them and in most (if not all) instances, they are mere guesses. Scholars argue that this is a result of the fact that it is impossible to produce any meaningful statistics on a reportedly illegal and covert phenomenon happening in the shadow economy. Problems with the concept
According to some scholars, the very concept of human trafficking is murky and misleading. It has been argued that while human trafficking is commonly seen as a monolithic crime, in reality it is an act of illegal migration that involves various different actions: some of them may be criminal or abusive, but others often involve consent and are legal. Laura Agustin
argues that not everything that might seem abusive or coercive is considered as such by the migrant. For instance, she states that: ‘would-be travellers commonly seek help from intermediaries who sell information, services and documents. When travellers cannot afford to buy these outright, they go into debt’. One scholar says that while these debts might indeed be on very harsh conditions, they are usually incurred on a voluntary basis.
The critics of the current approaches to trafficking say that a lot of the violence and exploitation faced by illegal migrants derives precisely from the fact that their migration and their work are illegal and not primarily because of some evil trafficking networks. Tara McCormack believes that the whole trafficking discourse can actually be detrimental to the interests of migrants as it denies them agency and as it depoliticizes debates on migration. Problems with anti-trafficking measures
Groups like Amnesty International
have been critical of insufficient or ineffective government measures to tackle human trafficking. Criticism includes a lack of understanding of human trafficking issues, poor identification of victims and a lack of resources for the key pillars of anti-trafficking - identification, protection, prosecution and prevention. For example, Amnesty International has called the UK government’s new anti-trafficking measures as 'not fit for purpose'. Laura Agustin
has suggested that in some cases 'anti-traffickers' ascribe victim status to immigrants
who have made conscious and rational decisions to cross the borders knowing they will be selling sex and who do not consider themselves to be victims. There have been instances in which the alleged victims of trafficking have actually refused to be rescued or run away from the anti-trafficking shelters.
The DNA Foundation was created by celebrity humanitarians Demi Moore
and Ashton Kutcher
in their efforts to fight human trafficking (specifically focusing on sex trafficking of children) in the U.S. In September 2010, the pair announced the launch of their “Real Men Don't Buy Girls” campaign to combat child sex trafficking alongside other Hollywood
stars and technology
companies like Microsoft
, and Facebook
. "Real Men Don't Buy Girls" is based on the idea that high-profile men speaking out against child sex trafficking can help reduce the demand for young girls in the commercial sex trade. A press conference was held on September 23 at the Clinton Global Initiative
. In 1994 Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women
was established to combat trafficking in women in any grounds.
In popular culture Main article: Human trafficking in popular culture
Works about human trafficking about onscreen and in print.
- ^ "Human trafficking for organs, tissue removal" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- ^ "Human trafficking for organs/tissue removal". Fightslaverynow.org. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- ^ "Human trafficking for ova removal or surrogacy". Councilforresponsiblegenetics.org. 2004-03-31. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- ^ "Convention on Transnational Organized Crime". Unodc.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime And The Protocols Thereto" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "UNODC - Signatories to the CTOC Trafficking Protocol". Treaties.un.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ Haken, Jeremy. "Transnational Crime In The Developing World". Global Financial Integrity. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- ^ "Economic Roots of Trafficking in the UNECE Region - Regional Prep. Meeting for Beijing". Unece.org. 15 December 2004. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "Forced Labor and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits". Cornell University ILR School. 2005-03-01. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
- ^ "UN-backed container exhibit spotlights plight of sex trafficking victims". Un.org. 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
- ^ Feingold, David A. (2010) 'Trafficking in Numbers' in P. Andreas and K. M. Greenhill (eds) Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts (London: Cornell University Press)
- ^ "Difference between Smuggling and Trafficking". Anti-trafficking.net. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- ^ "UNODC on human trafficking and migrant smuggling". Unodc.org. 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "Amnesty International - People smuggling". Amnesty.org.au. 2009-03-23. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ a b Labor trafficking fact sheet, National Human Trafficking Resource Center.
- ^ "A global alliance against forced labour", ILO, 11 May 2005)
- ^ a b "Human Trafficking". Racine Dominicans. 2005-05-11. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ Kara, Siddharth, "Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery," Columbia University Press, 2009.
- ^ "Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2007-08" (PDF). January 2009. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ Williams, Rachel (2008-07-03). "British-born teenagers being trafficked for sexual exploitation within UK, police say". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- ^ Mother sold girl for sex, May 7, 2010, The Age.
- ^ Agents in the UEFA spotlight, UEFA, 29 September 2006. (archived from the original on 2009-04-30)
- ^ "LatAm - Brazil - Child Prostitution Crisis". Libertadlatina.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "The Age: China sets up website to recover trafficked children: report". Melbourne: News.theage.com.au. 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "The Two Faces of Inter-country Adoption: The Significance of the Indian Adoption Scandals" by David M. Smolin, Seton Hall Law Review, 35:403–493, 2005. (archived from the original on 2009-03-26)
- ^ "Child Laundering: How the Inter-country Adoption System Legitimizes and Incentivizes the Practices of Buying, Trafficking, Kidnapping, and Stealing Children" by David M. Smolin, bepress Legal Series, Working Paper 749, August 29, 2005.
- ^ WomanStats Maps, Woman Stats Project.
- ^ "Colla UK_Sarah_final". Gaatw.net. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000". State.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ "Sex Trafficking: Trends, Challenges and Limitations of International Law". journalistsresource.org.
- ^ Definition of Trafficking - Save the Children Nepal (archived from the original on 2007-11-20)
- ^ Migration Information Programme. Trafficking and prostitution: the growing exploitation of migrant women from central and eastern Europe. Geneva, International Organization for Migration, 1995.
- ^ Chauzy JP. Kyrgyz Republic: trafficking. Geneva, International Organization for Migration, 20 January 2001 (Press briefing notes)
- ^ (PDF) Research based on case studies of victims of trafficking in human beings in 3 EU Member States, i.e. Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands. Commission of the European Communities, DG Justice & Home Affairs. 2001. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-10-05
- ^ "Media Conference for Announcing Role of Dewi Hughes 28 May 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-22.
- ^ The Yogyakarta Principles, Principle 11. The Right to Protection from all forms of exploitation, sale and trafficking of human beings.
- ^ Alyson Warhurst; Cressie Strachan, Zahed Yousuf, Siobhan Tuohy-Smith (August 2011). "Trafficking A global phenomenon with an exploration of India through maps" (PDF). Maplecroft. p. 51. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- ^ "Combating Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery". Polaris Project. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- ^ "National Human Trafficking Resource Center | Polaris Project | Combating Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery". Polaris Project. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- ^ "State Map | Polaris Project | Combating Human Trafficking and Modern-day Slavery". Polaris Project. 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- ^ a b "Trafficking in Persons Report 2010". U.S. Department of State. 2010.
- ^ a b c "Trafficking in Persons Report 2011". U.S. Department of State. 2011.
- ^ a b "Preventing Human Trafficking". Unodc.org. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "UN.GIFT_Kern_gesamt.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "Un.Gift.Hub". Ungift.org. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "What is human-trafficking". Unodc.org. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking - Mexico Campaign". Unodc.org. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "Kanaal van UNODCHQ". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking
- ^ "Demi Moore and Ashton Kutcher join Secretary-General to launch Trust Fund for victims of human trafficking". Unodc.org. 2010-11-04. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "Global report on trafficking in persons". Unodc.org. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- ^ "Global report on trafficking in persons". Unodc.org. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- ^ "Council of Europe - Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (CETS No. 197)". Conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ "Council of Europe - Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: Publications". Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- ^ "Council of Europe - European Court of Human Rights". Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- ^ "Council of Europe - European Court of Human Rights". Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- ^ "Combating Trafficking in Human Beings - Secretariat - Office of the Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings". Osce.org. 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ Cho, Seo-Young, Axel Dreher and Eric Neumayer (2011), The Spread of Anti-trafficking Policies - Evidence from a New Index, Cege Discussion Paper Series No. 119, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Germany.. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- ^ Global TV Campaign on Human Trafficking. UN Office on Drugs and Crime. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2008-10-05 (archived from the original on 2007-10-0-6)
- ^ Trafficking in Persons - Poster (English version) (archived from the original on 2008-02-27)
- ^ http://polis.osce.org/library/f/3655/2833/UN-USA-RPT-3655-EN-Text%20of%20the%20Convention.pdf
- ^ "Stop Sex Trafficking". Retrieved 2010-03-10
- ^ "Victims Of Trafficking And Violence Protection Act of 2000"
- ^ "Human-trafficking-research.org". Human-trafficking-research.org. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ Berkovitch, Nitzka (1999). From Motherhood to Citizenship: Women's Rights and International Organizations. JHU Press. pp. 75–6. ISBN 9780801860287.
- ^ Berkovitch, Nitzka (1999). From Motherhood to Citizenship: Women's Rights and International Organizations. JHU Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780801860287.
- ^ Berkovitch, Nitzka (1999). From Motherhood to Citizenship: Women's Rights and International Organizations. JHU Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780801860287.
- ^ a b c d e Dumienski, Zbigniew, 2011, ‘Critical Reflections on Anti-human Trafficking: The Case of Timor-Leste’, NTS Alert, May, Issue 2, Singapore: RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security (NTS) Studies for NTS-Asia.
- ^ See: both blog and the book "Sex at the Margins" by Laura Agustin.
- ^ For example: Nathalie Rothschild, More evidence that trafficking is a myth, 27 April 2009, spiked-online.com.
- ^ See for example: US Department of State, 2010, Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 2010.
- ^ Bialik, Carl, 2010, ‘Suspect Estimates of Sex Trafficking at the World Cup’, The Wall Street Journal, 19 June.
- ^ see also: US Government Accountability Office, 2006, Human Trafficking: Better Data, Strategy and Reporting Needed to Enhance U.S. Antitrafficking Efforts Abroad, Highlights of GAO-06-825 Report, Washington, DC.
- ^ a b Agustin, Laura, 2008, Sex at the Margins: Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry, London and New York: Zed Books.
- ^ Rothschild, Nathalie, 2009b, ‘“Rescue”: A New PC Term for Repatriation’, spiked, 26 October.
- ^ See for example: Ilkkaracan, Pinar and Leyla Gulcur, 2002, ‘The “Natasha” Experience: Migrant Sex Workers from the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in Turkey’, Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 411–21.
- ^ "The new slave trade? | Tara McCormack | spiked". Spiked-online.com. 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ Anti-trafficking measures 'not fit for purpose' and breach international law - new report, ‘
- ^ Kerry Howley (2007-12-26). "The Myth of the Migrant - Reason Magazine". Reason.com. Retrieved 2012-01-21.
- ^ ‘Chinese Prostitutes Resist Efforts to Rescue Them from Africa’, 2011, Times LIVE, 1 January.
- ^ Siddharth, Kumar, 2010, ‘Sex Workers Don’t Want Rescue’, Mid Day, 23 October.
- ^ Amanda Kloer , Demi and Ashton Launch "Real Men Don't Buy Girls" with Snoop Dogg, Others (September 24, 2010), humantrafficking.change.org.
Wikinews has news related to: Human trafficking
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Human trafficking
• Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns-UNODC report Finalized the Definition of Human Trafficking with the following from Wikipedia: DEFINITION PAGE: Human trafficking
is the illegal trade
of human beings mainly for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation
or forced labor
. Other purposes can be extraction of organs, or tissues or even surrogacy or ova removal
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children
(also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol
) was adopted by the United Nations
, Italy in 2000, and is an international legal agreement attached to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
. The Trafficking Protocol is one of three Protocols adopted to supplement the Convention. The Protocol is the first global, legally binding instrument on trafficking in over half a century and the only one that sets out an agreed definition of trafficking in persons. The purpose of the Protocol is to facilitate convergence in national cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons. An additional objective of the Protocol is to protect and assist the victims of trafficking in persons with full respect for their human rights. The Trafficking Protocol defines human trafficking as:
(a) [...] the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution
of others or other forms of sexual exploitation
, forced labour
or services, slavery
or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs
(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used;
(c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered “trafficking in persons” even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article;
(d) “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.
The Trafficking Protocol entered into force on 25 December 2003. By June 2010, the Trafficking Protocol had been ratified by 117 countries and 137 parties.
Trafficking is a lucrative industry. It is second only to drug trafficking as the most profitable illegal industry in the world. In 2004, the total annual revenue for trafficking in persons were estimated to be between USD
$5 billion and $9 billion.
In 2005, Patrick Belser of ILO
estimated a global annual profit of $31.6 billion. In 2008, the United Nations
estimated nearly 2.5 million people from 127 different countries are being trafficked into 137 countries around the world.
However, it is argued that many of these statistics are inflated to aid advocacy of anti-trafficking NGOs and the anti-trafficking policies of governments. Due to the definition of trafficking being a process (not a singly defined act) and the fact that it is a dynamic phenomenon with constantly shifting patterns relating to economic circumstances, much of the statistical evaluation is flawed.
Human trafficking differs from people smuggling
. In the latter, people voluntarily request or hire an individual, known as a smuggler, to covertly transport them from one location to another. This generally involves transportation from one country to another, where legal entry would be denied upon arrival at the international border. There may be no deception involved in the (illegal) agreement. After entry into the country and arrival at their ultimate destination, the smuggled person is usually free to find their own way.
According to the International Centre for Migration Policy development (ICMPD): Human smuggling is a: "Crime against State – no victim by the crime of smuggling as such (violation of immigration laws/public order; the crime of smuggling by definition does not require violations of the rights of the smuggled migrants)". Whereas human traffic is a: "Crime against person – victim; violation of the rights of the victim of trafficking by definition (violation of person’s human rights; victim of coercion and exploitation that give rise to duties by the State to treat the individual as a victim of a crime and human rights violation)"
While smuggling requires travel, trafficking does not. Much of the confusion rests with the term itself. The word "trafficking" includes the word "traffic," which means transportation or travel. However, while the words look and sound alike, they do not hold the same meaning.
Victims of human trafficking are not permitted to leave upon arrival at their destination. They are held against their will through acts of coercion and forced to work or provide services to the trafficker or others. The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labor to commercialized sexual exploitation. The arrangement may be structured as a work contract, but with no or low payment or on terms which are highly exploitative. Sometimes the arrangement is structured as debt bondage
, with the victim not being permitted or able to pay off the debt. Finalized the History of Slavery document attached below: HISTORY OF ANTI-SLAVERY INTERNATIONAL TIMELINE: 170 YEARS OF FIGHTING SLAVERY 17 April 1839
The Anti-Slavery Society is formed by Thomas Clarkson and other abolitionists to campaign against slavery worldwide. 1840
Convened the world's first anti-slavery convention in London. 1850
Developed 26 'slave-free produce' consumer action groups, promoting alternatives to slave plantation sugar. 1890
Helped establish the Brussels Act, the first comprehensive anti-slavery treaty, which allowed the inspection of ships and the arrest of anyone transporting slaves. 1904 to 1913
Campaigned against slavery practices perpetrated in the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium. The campaign eventually helped bring an end to Leopold's tyranny. 1920
Helped end the indentured labour system in the British colonies after campaigning against the use of Indian and Chinese "coolies". 1921
Played a pivotal role in ending the activities of the Peruvian Amazon Company, which was using indigenous slave labour in rubber production. 1922
Successfully lobbied for the League of Nations inquiry into slavery, which resulted in the. 1926
Slavery Convention that obliged all ratifying states to end slavery. 1956
Influenced the content of the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. 1984
Helped establish the Human Rights Fund for Indigenous People. 1995
Supported an Indian NGO initiative for the establishment of the Rugmark Foundation. 1994
An original supporter of the End Child Prostitution, Pornography and Trafficking campaign (ECPAT) and helped set up the UK branch. 1998
One of the organisers of the 1998 Global March against Child Labour, which helped lead to the adoption of a new ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182). 2000
Worked with Nepalese NGO INSEC to secure Government backing to abolish the Kamaiya form of bonded labour. 2003
With local NGO Timidria conducted a survey that led to the criminalisation of slavery in Niger. 2003
Lobbied the Brazilian government to introduce a National Plan for the Eradication of Slavery. 2004
Successfully lobbied to make trafficking of sexual and labour exploitation a criminal offence in the UK. 2005
Organised a major campaign on child camel jockeys in the Gulf States, which influenced the UAE's decision to rescue and repatriate up to 3,00 child camel jockeys. 2005
Influenced the development of the Council of Europe Convention against trafficking in human beings, which provides minimum standards of protection and support for trafficked people. The convention was ratified by the UK government at the end of 2008. 2007
Helped push for the appointment of a UN Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery. 2008
Instrumental in getting the Transatlantic Slave Trade taught in UK schools as part of the national curriculum. 2008
Successfully supported former slave Hadijatou Mani to sue Niger for failing to protect her from slavery. Hadijatou's former master was also found guilty of slavery.
17th February 2013
HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
11th Feb to 17th Feb. .................................................................................................................................... N/A
Hours worked on souccjstudentjournal website will not be noted as part of this project.
Applications applied to the souccjstudenjournal website:
Setting up url.
Selecting a relevant design.
Changed base line colours.
Changed size of header tag.
Changed colors of drop down tags on nav bar.
Set size of content page.
Loaded all information from first website.
Organization of all documents downloaded and copies filed.
Made a few minor changes to souccjstudenjournal website.
Correct the first page of Volume 1 document which was not rendering correctly.
Discovered that it was the last space of the first line of the page that had crossed over the border of the html coding.
14th February 2013
Launched the new website: www.souccgstudenjournal
-- and am very proud of the positive manner in which Proffessor Burke received the website.
I have completed the psd (Photoshop) version of the Logo and will ensure that Professor Burke receives it and is aware that is now belongs to the criminal justice division of Southern Oregon University. Researched Labor Trafficking sent to my by Professor Burke. http://nij.gov/topics/crime/human-trafficking/labor-trafficking.htm
National Institute of Justice:
Sent from Professor Burke. Labor Trafficking
According to a report from researchers at San Diego State University, approximately 38,000 unauthorized Spanish-speaking victims of human trafficking work in San Diego County, California. These workers, who represent 31 percent of unauthorized Spanish-speaking workers in the county, have experienced an incident that meets the official definition of human trafficking. The analysis estimates that of the approximately 174,240 unauthorized Mexicans in San Diego County, about 124,460 are in the labor market.
The definition of human trafficking used in the study was based on U.S. statutes (i.e., the events described by the respondents were violations of U.S. law). The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (pdf, 86 pages)
defines human trafficking as, “the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or sex slavery.”
The principal objectives of the study were to provide statistically sound estimates on the nature and prevalence of trafficking and labor victimization among unauthorized laborers in San Diego County.
The study identified the six largest labor sectors where unauthorized workers were most likely to find jobs in:
- Janitorial/cleaning services
- Food processing
The industries with the highest numbers of violations were construction, food processing and janitorial/cleaning. Construction had the highest rates (35 percent for reported trafficking violations and 63 percent for abusive labor practices). Agriculture had the lowest rates of both reported trafficking violations (16 percent) and abusive labor practices (27 percent). The researchers were unable to document why agriculture had the lowest level of victimization. One explanation might be that the insulated and close-knit network of migrant farmworkers in northern San Diego County serves as a protective factor against such victimization.
In general, violations and abuses inflicted during transportation appeared to be far less common than those inflicted by employers at the workplace. Of those who traveled with migrant smugglers, six percent reported experiencing violations compared to 28 percent who reported experiencing violations in the workplace. Examples of violations and abuses included laborers who were forbidden to leave the workplace, whose IDs were confiscated, who were forbidden to contact family members, and who were subjected to physical and sexual violence.
Read the full study, Looking for a Hidden Population: Trafficking of Migrant Laborers in San Diego County (pdf, 153 pages)
, by Dr. Sheldon X. Zhang.
To learn more about human trafficking and to report a potential trafficking case, visit or contact the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Exit Notice
at 1-888-3737-888. Continued research into Laws on Trafficking in Persons: attached below: www.state.gov
U.S. Laws on Trafficking in Persons
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-386), the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (H.R. 2620), the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 972), and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (H.R. 7311) provide the tools to combat trafficking in persons both worldwide and domestically. The Acts authorized the establishment of G/TIP and the President's Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to assist in the coordination of anti-trafficking efforts. Further Research into the Laws involved with human Trafficking: www.state.gov/j/tip/laws/61106.htm
Congress finds the following:
(1) The United States has demonstrated international leadership in combating human trafficking and slavery through the enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (division A of Public Law 106-386; 22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.) and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-193).
(2) The United States Government currently estimates that 600,000 to 800,000 individuals are trafficked across international borders each year and exploited through forced labor and commercial sex exploitation. An estimated 80 percent of such individuals are women and girls.
(3) Since the enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, United States efforts to combat trafficking in persons have focused primarily on the international trafficking in persons, including the trafficking of foreign citizens into the United States.
(4) Trafficking in persons also occurs within the borders of a country, including the United States.
(5) No known studies exist that quantify the problem of trafficking in children for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in the United States. According to a report issued by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania in 2001, as many as 300,000 children in the United States are at risk for commercial sexual exploitation, including trafficking, at any given time.
(6) Runaway and homeless children in the United States are highly susceptible to being domestically trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. According to the National Runaway Switchboard, every day in the United States, between 1,300,000 and 2,800,000 runaway and homeless youth live on the streets. One out of every seven children will run away from home before the age of 18.
(7) Following armed conflicts and during humanitarian emergencies, indigenous populations face increased security challenges and vulnerabilities which result in myriad forms of violence, including trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation. Foreign policy and foreign aid professionals increasingly recognize the increased activity of human traffickers in post-conflict settings and during humanitarian emergencies.
(8) There is a need to protect populations in post-conflict settings and humanitarian emergencies from being trafficked for sexual or labor exploitation. The efforts of aid agencies to address the protection needs of, among others, internally displaced persons and refugees are useful in this regard. Nonetheless, there is a need for further integrated programs and strategies at the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of State, and the Department of Defense to combat human trafficking, including through protection and prevention methodologies, in post-conflict environments and during humanitarian emergencies.
(9) International and human rights organizations have documented a correlation between international deployments of military and civilian peacekeepers and aid workers and a resulting increase in the number of women and girls trafficked into prostitution in post-conflict regions.
(10) The involvement of employees and contractors of the United States Government and members of the Armed Forces in trafficking in persons, facilitating the trafficking in persons, or exploiting the victims of trafficking in persons is inconsistent with United States laws and policies and undermines the credibility and mission of United States Government programs in post-conflict regions.
(11) Further measures are needed to ensure that United States Government personnel and contractors are held accountable for involvement with acts of trafficking in persons, including by expanding United States criminal jurisdiction to all United States Government contractors abroad.
TITLE I--COMBATTING INTERNATIONAL TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
SEC. 101. PREVENTION OF TRAFFICKING IN CONJUNCTION WITH POST-CONFLICT AND HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE.
(a) Amendment- Section 106 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7104) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
"(h) Prevention of Trafficking in Conjunction With Post-Conflict and Humanitarian Emergency Assistance- The United States Agency for International Development, the Department of State, and the Department of Defense shall incorporate anti-trafficking and protection measures for vulnerable populations, particularly women and children, into their post-conflict and humanitarian emergency assistance and program activities.".
10th February 2013
HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
03rd Feb to 10th Feb ................................................................................................................................. 14 hrs
This week completed research into the definition area of the website.
Researched You tube for appropriate videos, selected 4 of them for the Victims of Human Trafficking Page and loaded them ensuring that they download and play when selected by readers of our website, making sure that the subject matter was not only appropriate but relevant to this website, and that they related to USA. Found that many are international or related to other countries which was not suitable, but giving me a real sense of the magnitude of the problem. Spent 4 1/2 hours watching many disturbing videos. The subject matter became very real for me creating an awareness of how much videos can give a reader or viewer a more complete picture of the issue. As a website designer and creater this gave me an insight into the value of video's and how our present society relies on moving images as apposed to reading material. I will bear this in mind in future when developing website for clients. Completed this week:
Layout for the Survivors, Victims and Perpatrators Pages.
Revamped the website as I decided the content area was too heavy (wide) and was wider than the header panel.
Resized all the pictures and the content holders in order to get it looking leaner.
At all times ensuring that the integrity of the holding site was not disturbed. January Is National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month
January 1, 2013 marked the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, in which President Lincoln declared that all persons within the Confederate states, "shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free." While the Proclamation did not officially end legal slavery in the United States, it marked a significant shift in the country leading to the passage of the 13th amendment in 1865 which formally abolished legal forms of slavery and indentured servitude.
Unfortunately, slavery still thrives through illicit means. Today, millions of human trafficking victims are enslaved throughout the world and in the United States.
President Obama proclaimed January as National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month
, reaffirming America’s commitment to ending this terrible human rights abuse. He notes that while the road to the eradication of human trafficking may be long, continued commitment to the victims of this crime can again lead to great change; “These achievements [the Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th amendment] once seemed impossible -- but on this day, let us remember that they were not, and let us press on toward the future we know is possible.”
This January, OVC asks you to educate yourself about human trafficking and raise awareness in your community. In recognition of National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, OVC has produced a 30 second public service announcement (PSA), as well as a public awareness poster that can be personalized with local contact information for use throughout the year.
Download the PSA and poster
(PDF 108 kb), which focus on sex trafficking of U.S. minors, to support your outreach and awareness efforts. They will be featured resources in the 2013 National Crime Victims’ Rights Week (NCVRW) Resource Guide, available soon on the OVC website
Learn how to identify victims of human trafficking and where they can go for help by reviewing the following OVC resources:
To learn more about federal efforts to combat human trafficking, visit the following sites:
02nd February 2013
HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
28th Jan to 02nd Feb .................................................................................................................................... 13 hrs
Completed work on all links on website and made changes the html coding of the links and how they appear on the website.
Searched for and found organizations who run programs offering support to victims of human trafficking.
This was a very interesting and time consuming exercise in that I found in excess of 40 organizations. At first thinking that I could list and link all of them to our website, but remembering the integrity that I wished to uphold thought that it might be better to read and truly understand what each organization did. I discovered that for many the primary goal is the collection of funds and felt that this website did not wish to promote that at this stage as it is a university project for now. Information on History of Slavery Page was taken from the following:
Abraham Lincoln, a self-taught Illinois lawyer and legislator with a reputation as an eloquent opponent of slavery, shocked many when he overcame several more prominent contenders to win the Republican Party's nomination for president in 1860. His election that November pushed several Southern states to secede by the time of his inauguration in March 1861, and the Civil War began barely a month later. Contrary to expectations, Lincoln proved to be a shrewd military strategist and a savvy leader during what became the costliest conflict ever fought on American soil. His Emancipation Proclamation, issued in 1863, freed all slaves in the rebellious states and paved the way for slavery's eventual abolition, while his Gettysburg Address later that year stands as one of the most famous and influential pieces of oratory in American history. In April 1865, with the Union on the brink of victory, Abraham Lincoln was shot and killed by the Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth; his untimely death made him a martyr to the cause of liberty and Union. Over the years Lincoln's mythic stature has only grown, and he is widely regarded as one of the greatest presidents in the nation's history.
On this day in 1809, Abraham Lincoln
is born in Hodgenville, Kentucky
Lincoln, one of America's most admired presidents, grew up a member of a poor family in Kentucky and Indiana
. He attended school for only one year, but thereafter read on his own in a continual effort to improve his mind. As an adult, he lived in Illinois
and performed a variety of jobs including stints as a postmaster, surveyor and shopkeeper, before entering politics. He served in the Illinois legislature from 1834 to 1836, and then became an attorney. In 1842, Lincoln married Mary Todd; together, the pair raised four sons.
Lincoln returned to politics during the 1850s, a time when the nation's long-standing division over slavery was flaring up, particularly in new territories being added to the Union. As leader of the new Republican Party, Lincoln was considered politically moderate, even on the issue of slavery. He advocated the restriction of slavery to the states in which it already existed and described the practice in a letter as a minor issue as late as 1854. In an 1858 senatorial race, as secessionist sentiment brewed among the southern states, he warned, a house divided against itself cannot stand. He did not win the Senate seat but earned national recognition as a strong political force. Lincoln's inspiring oratory soothed a populace anxious about southern states' secessionist threats and boosted his popularity.
As a presidential candidate in the election of 1860, Lincoln tried to reassure slaveholding interests that although he favored abolition, he had no intention of ending the practice in states where it already existed and prioritized saving the Union over freeing slaves. When he won the presidency by approximately 400,000 popular votes and carried the Electoral College
, he was in effect handed a ticking time bomb. His concessions to slaveholders failed to prevent South Carolina
from leading other states in an exodus from the Union that began shortly after his election. By February 1, 1861, Mississippi
had also seceded. Soon after, the Civil War
began. As the war progressed, Lincoln moved closer to committing himself and the nation to the abolitionist movement
and, in 1863, finally signed the Emancipation Proclamation
. The document freed slaves in the Confederate states, but did not address the legality of slavery in Missouri
Lincoln was the tallest president at 6' 4. As a young man, he impressed others with his sheer physical strength--he was a legendary wrestler in Illinois--and entertained friends and strangers alike with his dry, folksy wit, which was still in evidence years later. Exasperated by one Civil War military defeat after another, Lincoln wrote to a lethargic general if you are not using the army I should like to borrow it for awhile. An animal lover, Lincoln once declared, "I care not for a man's religion whose dog and cat are not the better for it." Fittingly, a variety of pets took up residence at the Lincoln White House, including a pet turkey named Jack and a goat called Nanko. Lincoln's son Tad frequently hitched Nanko to a small wagon and drove around the White House grounds.
Lincoln's sense of humor may have helped him to hide recurring bouts of depression. He admitted to friends and colleagues that he suffered from intense melancholia and hypochondria most of his adult life. Perhaps in order to cope with it, Lincoln engaged in self-effacing humor, even chiding himself about his famously homely looks. When an opponent in an 1858 Senate race debate called him two-faced, he replied, If I had another face do you think I would wear this one?
Lincoln is remembered as The Great Emancipator. Although he waffled on the subject of slavery in the early years of his presidency, his greatest legacy was his work to preserve the Union and his signing of the Emancipation Proclamation. To Confederate sympathizers, however, Lincoln's signing of the Emancipation Proclamation reinforced his image as a hated despot and ultimately led John Wilkes Booth
to assassinate him on April 14, 1865. His favorite horse, Old Bob, pulled his funeral hearse. FOUND THE 9/11 REFORM ACT:
[House Hearing, 109 Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
THE 9/11 REFORM ACT: EXAMINING
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HUMAN
SMUGGLING AND TRAFFICKING CENTER
THE 9/11 REFORM ACT: EXAMINING
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HUMAN SMUGGLING AND TRAFFICKING CENTER
Wednesday, March 8, 2006
U.S. House of Representatives,
Committee on Homeland Security,
Subcommittee on Management,
Integration and Oversight, Washington, DC.
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2:30 p.m., in
Room 311, Cannon House Office Building, Hon. Mike Rogers [chairman of the subcommittee] presiding.
Present: Representatives Rogers, Harris, Reichert, Meek,
Jackson-Lee, and Pascrell.
Mr. Rogers. The Subcommittee on Management, Integration and
Oversight will come to order. Today we are holding a hearing to discuss the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center. This facility was established by the 9/11 Reform Act and is designed to combat terrorist travel.
The HSTC thus incrementally and logically has become a major resource for attacking the illicit travel sphere as a means of finding terrorists and constraining terrorist mobility; deterring and controlling the crimes of human trafficking and smuggling; and through those functions supporting immigration management and migrant safety.
The 9/11 Commission recognized that terrorist travel and crime control are inseparable because terrorist travel tactics intersect the illicit travel market that also services humansmugglers and traffickers and other criminals. The Commission therefore recommended that: ``The United States should combine terrorist travel intelligence, operations, and law enforcement in a strategy to intercept terrorists, find terrorist travel facilitators, and constrain terrorist mobility.''
It stated specifically that the small terrorist travel intelligence program was producing disproportionately useful results and should be expanded.
Continuing this bi-partisan concern about terrorist travel and the illicit market in travel services, Congress in Sections 7201-2 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act:
mandated a new terrorist travel strategy;required an assessment by the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center of US vulnerability to travel and immigration system exploitation; established the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center as a statutory entity; and directed that federal agencies report back to Congress on how to make the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center more effective in countering terrorist travel.
Congress enacted that legislation in December 2004. Over a year later, it is now an appropriate time to assess what has been and still must be done to make the HSTC an effective fusion center that provides a platform for a strong and coordinated US government attack on illicit travel by terrorists, human traffickers, and human smugglers.
HSTC: MISSION AND REQUIREMENTS
The vital homeland security mission of the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center is to counter these tactics, broadly speaking, in three fundamental ways including:
Facilitating broad dissemination of all-source information about the illicit travel market and its terrorist, human trafficker, and smuggler elements;
Preparing operational, tactical, and strategic assessments, with the emphasis on ongoing field support and an annual risk (threat and vulnerability) assessment for participating agencies and for Congress; and
Identifying issues for further joint attention.
01st February 2013
Researched historical aspect of this slavery.
Searched many different websites for the final parts chosen to be hosted on the History Page.
There is a lot written about the history of slavery in the USA, but most are written from the perspective of the impending war over the matter of slavery of that time, and not from the modern perspective.
I found this section of the research very interesting and learned a lot about America.
Visited many website reporting on current aspects of the issue of Human Trafficking and completed the Home page, highlighting the fact that President Obama declared the month of January anti Human Trafficking month. Below is a list of sites visited. I have enclosed all the sites that I looked at and read about.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING - AWARENESS (Targeting Traffickers - Helping Victims) http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2013/january/targeting-human-traffickers-helping-victims
HUMAN TRAFFICKING - PREVENTION (Help us Identify Potential Victims) http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/january/trafficking_012012
HUMAN TRAFFICKING - ITS SAD BUT IT TRUE http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/civilrights/human_trafficking
HUMAN TRAFFICKING - FBI INITIATIVES http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/civilrights/human_trafficking/initiatives
HUMAN TRAFFICKING - Victim Assistance. http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/victim_assistance
SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION POLICIES AND PRACTICES AND RELATED STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES IN CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS http://www.oregon.gov/oya/dmcsummit/2012/handouts/Handout3_CaliforniaSuspensionExpulsionPoliciesEDC.pdf
HUMAN TRAFFICKING REPORT AND STATISICS
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPECTED HUMAN TRAFFICKING INCIDENTS, 2008-2010 http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cshti0810.pdf
THE FACE OF HUMAN TRAFFICERS http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/school_violence
FORMER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER ARRESTED IN HONG KONG:
ONE OF THE MOST NOTORIUS ACCUSED CHILD MOLESTERS ...
ARRESTED YESTERDAY 30TH JAN 2013.... http://www.missingkids.com/missingkids/servlet/PageServlet?LanguageCountry=en_US&PageId=3155
Since inception, ICE has criminally arrested more than 8,000 child predators nationwide, including a number of individuals who have committed a wide range of child sex exploitation crimes. http://www.ice.gov/news/library/factsheets/predator.htm Also visited the Office of Victims of Crime (OVC) Web Forum.... attached below:
Office of Victims of Crime (OVC)
Providing Services to Runaway Youth and Victims of Human Trafficking
Views and opinions expressed within the OVC Web Forum are not necessarily those of the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC). For more information, please view the Disclaimers
This discussion is open
How can our community improve our perception of human trafficking(HT) when we continue to allow a community to believe HT only exist in the ghetto? Until the community as a whole begin to care and advocate for victims things will not change. You will not see any billboards to raise awareness about HT but when you drive through the ghetto that is only when you see the outcry to help victims. Why haven't there been new studies of the profile of the consumers who are demanding the services of commercial sex acts? Maybe then we can then track down those consumers and end the demand for commercial sex acts that will then in turn reduce the alarm rates of HT.
From: Pam Strickland
Date posted: 01/22/2013
I agree that ending demand is the only way to end sex trafficking. Unfortunately, since prostitution laws are not consistently enforced (because prostitution is a "victimless" crime), sex trafficking victims are often not discovered. I think severe penalties for the PURCHASE of sex would help, but only if law enforcement would enforce that.
NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK: 21st Jan to 27th Jan 2013 ................................................................ 8 hrs
"No man shall make me hate him so much, that it makes me stoop to his level."
Human Trafficking is a human problem, it is a collective problem and does not belong only to the few, it belongs to all that call themselves human.
27th January 2013
This weeks work schedule.
Setting up pages and different sections of the website.(All on Navigation Bar)
Spent most of the time looking at various aspects of Human Trafficking. Got discouraged and felt very overwhelmed with the sheer size and many aspects of the subject.
Decided that as I love quotes so much I will look for relevant quotes to put on various section of the website, as they make you think about what you are reading.