HOURS WORKED THIS WEEK:
11th Feb to 17th Feb. .................................................................................................................................... N/A
Hours worked on souccjstudentjournal website will not be noted as part of this project.
Applications applied to the souccjstudenjournal website:
Setting up url.
Selecting a relevant design.
Changed base line colours.
Changed size of header tag.
Changed colors of drop down tags on nav bar.
Set size of content page.
Loaded all information from first website.
Organization of all documents downloaded and copies filed.
Made a few minor changes to souccjstudenjournal website.
Correct the first page of Volume 1 document which was not rendering correctly.
Discovered that it was the last space of the first line of the page that had crossed over the border of the html coding.
14th February 2013
Launched the new website: www.souccgstudenjournal -- and am very proud of the positive manner in which Proffessor Burke received the website.
I have completed the psd (Photoshop) version of the Logo and will ensure that Professor Burke receives it and is aware that is now belongs to the criminal justice division of Southern Oregon University.
Researched Labor Trafficking sent to my by Professor Burke.
National Institute of Justice:
Sent from Professor Burke.
According to a report from researchers at San Diego State University, approximately 38,000 unauthorized Spanish-speaking victims of human trafficking work in San Diego County, California. These workers, who represent 31 percent of unauthorized Spanish-speaking workers in the county, have experienced an incident that meets the official definition of human trafficking. The analysis estimates that of the approximately 174,240 unauthorized Mexicans in San Diego County, about 124,460 are in the labor market.
The definition of human trafficking used in the study was based on U.S. statutes (i.e., the events described by the respondents were violations of U.S. law). The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (pdf, 86 pages) defines human trafficking as, “the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or sex slavery.”
The principal objectives of the study were to provide statistically sound estimates on the nature and prevalence of trafficking and labor victimization among unauthorized laborers in San Diego County.
The study identified the six largest labor sectors where unauthorized workers were most likely to find jobs in:
- Janitorial/cleaning services
- Food processing
In general, violations and abuses inflicted during transportation appeared to be far less common than those inflicted by employers at the workplace. Of those who traveled with migrant smugglers, six percent reported experiencing violations compared to 28 percent who reported experiencing violations in the workplace. Examples of violations and abuses included laborers who were forbidden to leave the workplace, whose IDs were confiscated, who were forbidden to contact family members, and who were subjected to physical and sexual violence.
Read the full study, Looking for a Hidden Population: Trafficking of Migrant Laborers in San Diego County (pdf, 153 pages), by Dr. Sheldon X. Zhang.
To learn more about human trafficking and to report a potential trafficking case, visit or contact the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Exit Notice at 1-888-3737-888.
Continued research into Laws on Trafficking in Persons: attached below:
U.S. Laws on Trafficking in Persons
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-386), the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (H.R. 2620), the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 972), and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (H.R. 7311) provide the tools to combat trafficking in persons both worldwide and domestically. The Acts authorized the establishment of G/TIP and the President's Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to assist in the coordination of anti-trafficking efforts.
Further Research into the Laws involved with human Trafficking:
Congress finds the following:
(1) The United States has demonstrated international leadership in combating human trafficking and slavery through the enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (division A of Public Law 106-386; 22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.) and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-193).
(2) The United States Government currently estimates that 600,000 to 800,000 individuals are trafficked across international borders each year and exploited through forced labor and commercial sex exploitation. An estimated 80 percent of such individuals are women and girls.
(3) Since the enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, United States efforts to combat trafficking in persons have focused primarily on the international trafficking in persons, including the trafficking of foreign citizens into the United States.
(4) Trafficking in persons also occurs within the borders of a country, including the United States.
(5) No known studies exist that quantify the problem of trafficking in children for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in the United States. According to a report issued by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania in 2001, as many as 300,000 children in the United States are at risk for commercial sexual exploitation, including trafficking, at any given time.
(6) Runaway and homeless children in the United States are highly susceptible to being domestically trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. According to the National Runaway Switchboard, every day in the United States, between 1,300,000 and 2,800,000 runaway and homeless youth live on the streets. One out of every seven children will run away from home before the age of 18.
(7) Following armed conflicts and during humanitarian emergencies, indigenous populations face increased security challenges and vulnerabilities which result in myriad forms of violence, including trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation. Foreign policy and foreign aid professionals increasingly recognize the increased activity of human traffickers in post-conflict settings and during humanitarian emergencies.
(8) There is a need to protect populations in post-conflict settings and humanitarian emergencies from being trafficked for sexual or labor exploitation. The efforts of aid agencies to address the protection needs of, among others, internally displaced persons and refugees are useful in this regard. Nonetheless, there is a need for further integrated programs and strategies at the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of State, and the Department of Defense to combat human trafficking, including through protection and prevention methodologies, in post-conflict environments and during humanitarian emergencies.
(9) International and human rights organizations have documented a correlation between international deployments of military and civilian peacekeepers and aid workers and a resulting increase in the number of women and girls trafficked into prostitution in post-conflict regions.
(10) The involvement of employees and contractors of the United States Government and members of the Armed Forces in trafficking in persons, facilitating the trafficking in persons, or exploiting the victims of trafficking in persons is inconsistent with United States laws and policies and undermines the credibility and mission of United States Government programs in post-conflict regions.
(11) Further measures are needed to ensure that United States Government personnel and contractors are held accountable for involvement with acts of trafficking in persons, including by expanding United States criminal jurisdiction to all United States Government contractors abroad.
TITLE I--COMBATTING INTERNATIONAL TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
SEC. 101. PREVENTION OF TRAFFICKING IN CONJUNCTION WITH POST-CONFLICT AND HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE.
(a) Amendment- Section 106 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7104) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
"(h) Prevention of Trafficking in Conjunction With Post-Conflict and Humanitarian Emergency Assistance- The United States Agency for International Development, the Department of State, and the Department of Defense shall incorporate anti-trafficking and protection measures for vulnerable populations, particularly women and children, into their post-conflict and humanitarian emergency assistance and program activities.".